Climate change, a pressing global threat, requires coordinated efforts and innovative solutions. However, a recent study by the University of Maine suggests that our evolution, which enabled human dominance on Earth, might pose challenges to effectively addressing climate change.

Evolutionary Influence on Environmental Adaptation

Published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, the study explores the historical impact of human evolution on the usage of environmental resources. It aims to understand how cultural adaptation processes that allow us to thrive and expand globally may counteract our efforts to combat modern ecological challenges.

Human Expansion Over Time

The research begins by examining the changing dynamics of human societies over the past 100,000 years. During this period, human groups evolved to progressively use resources more intensively, leading to more significant environmental impacts. This expansion was facilitated by cultural adaptations, accumulating traits that allowed humans to exploit and control environmental resources effectively.

What is Cultural Adaptation?

Cultural adaptation is the ability of humans and societies to adjust their culture in response to changes in the environment, whether natural or social. The extent of these cultural changes can range from minor adjustments in daily activities to significant transformations in various aspects like social, ethnic, psychological, and ideological elements, depending on the magnitude of environmental changes.

To learn more, watch this cultural adaptation cycle: 

Contemporary Environmental Challenges

However, as we reach the limits of the biosphere and face crises induced by industrial activities such as the use of fossil fuels, the very adaptations that once fueled our expansion are now contributing to threats against vital resources and overall safety.

Sustainable Systems Emergence

The study delves into the emergence of sustainable systems, revealing a nuanced picture. Sustainable systems often arise after groups struggle or fail to maintain their resources. 

This observation parallels historical instances, such as the U.S. regulating industrial emissions after recognizing the environmental impact of acid rain. Sustainable systems tend to address problems within existing societies, requiring regional cooperation and cultural evolution.

The Acid Rain Program (ARP) mandates significant cuts in sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants to curb acid rain. The SO2 program imposes a permanent cap on total emissions, reaching 8.95 million tons by 2010, halving 1980 levels. 

NOx reductions employ a rate-based system. The ARP, launched in 1995, significantly cut emissions, using market-based incentives for flexibility and effectiveness. This pioneering cap and trade program set a precedent for reducing pollution and achieving environmental goals.

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Implications for Climate Change Solutions

The study’s crucial insights relate to the challenges of solving global issues like climate change. Effective solutions demand global cooperation and innovative systems surpassing frameworks like the Paris Agreement. However, the study highlights two significant challenges:

  1. Lack of Coordinated Global Society: The absence of a globally coordinated society is a notable obstacle. Current structures mainly consist of sub-global groups, which might fall short of adequately addressing global challenges.

  1. Prioritization of Sub-global Interests: Sub-global groups like nations and corporations may prioritize their interests over collective global priorities. This could lead to resource competition and even conflicts between groups, hindering effective responses to climate change.

Future Considerations

The research suggests the need for extensive investigations into the drivers of cultural evolution. Understanding these drivers can potentially lead to strategies to mitigate global environmental competition. 

While the study offers valuable insights, it also underscores the complexity of humanity’s evolutionary history and its challenges in navigating contemporary global issues.


In concluding the study, the researchers emphasize the unique challenges posed by human evolution in building cooperative global governance. Policymakers and researchers are urged to approach global solutions with a clear understanding of these complexities. 

The study leaves open-ended questions about humanity’s ability to overcome these challenges, emphasizing the need for further examination and potential modifications to adaptive change processes. 

Addressing climate change may require technological innovations and a deeper understanding and adaptation of our societal structures in the face of our evolutionary legacy.


  1. National Geographic. (n.d.). Climate Change. Retrieved from
  2. Waring, T. M., Wood, Z. T., & Szathmáry, E. (2023, November 13). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Retrieved from

  1. Wolf, M. (2023, October 30). UMaine, UVM researchers conduct first-ever study of cultural adaptation to climate change.University of Maine News. Retrieved from

  1. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). Acid Rain Program. Retrieved from

  1. Youtube. (n.d.). Global Society. Culture Shock and The Cultural Adaptation Cycle [What It Is and What to Do About It]. Retrieved from

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