Europe boasts diverse ecosystems, ranging from pristine forests to sprawling wetlands and vibrant coastal regions. A European Ecological Atlas would be an indispensable tool for fully appreciating this rich environmental diversity, identifying and understanding its challenges, and effectively supporting its protection and conservation.

In this article, we’ll explore the purpose of a European ecological atlas and identify several initiatives and platforms that compile ecological data and maps from various sources across Europe. Additionally, we’ll provide a comprehensive list of European ecological maps categorized by focus and purpose. 

Key Takeaways

  • A European Ecological Atlas is a comprehensive resource detailing Europe’s ecological diversity.
  • It includes various maps focusing on species distribution, habitats, and conservation areas.
  • An ecological atlas is a critical tool for understanding environmental challenges and their solutions.
  • Conservation efforts reflected within an ecological atlas emphasize preserving Europe’s biodiversity.
  • Accessibility of data and information in an atlas aids educational and policy-making processes.

European Ecological Atlas and Its Purposes

National Geographic defines an atlas as a book or a compilation of maps, often including geographical snapshots and enriching facts and historical insights about various places. Atlases come in various forms, catering to distinct interests – from road and historical atlases to celestial guides like star atlases, charting the positions of stars, planets, and other astronomical phenomena.

World atlases typically extend beyond mapping countries and continents; they delve into providing interesting insights about different nations. These can range from detailed maps of key cities and landmarks to comprehensive data on population demographics, natural resource distributions, cultural and religious practices, as well as political landscapes.

In this light, a European ecological atlas can be identified as an invaluable compendium that captures Europe’s ecological richness and diversity. It transcends traditional mappings to offer an in-depth overview of the continent’s biodiversity, encompassing its plant and animal life, diverse climatic zones, environmental challenges, and ongoing conservation initiatives to preserve this natural heritage.

A European ecological atlas aims to furnish a comprehensive snapshot of Europe’s ecological well-being. It delves into the intricacies of ecosystem interactions and human influences, serving several vital purposes:

  • Highlighting Biodiversity Hotspots and Conservation Priorities: Identifying biodiversity hotspots and prioritizing conservation efforts are essential for safeguarding Europe’s natural heritage. An atlas is vital in this regard, pinpointing areas of high species richness and highlighting regions under threat. The atlas is pivotal in preserving biodiversity for future generations by directing conservation initiatives towards these priority areas.
  • Mapping Environmental Pressures: Human activities exert significant pressure on Europe’s ecosystems, ranging from urbanization and agriculture to climate change and pollution. An ecological atlas delineates these environmental pressures through sophisticated mapping techniques, offering insights into their spatial distribution and intensity. Such information is indispensable for policymakers, enabling informed decision-making to mitigate these threats and promote sustainable development.
  • Integrating Science and Policy: A European ecological atlas bridges the gap between science and policy, translating cutting-edge research into actionable insights for policymakers and stakeholders. By synthesizing vast amounts of ecological data into accessible formats, the atlas facilitates evidence-based policymaking and fosters collaboration between scientists, policymakers, and conservation practitioners. This integration is essential for addressing pressing environmental challenges and charting a course toward a more sustainable future.
  • Citizen Science and Public Engagement: Engaging citizens in scientific endeavors is key to fostering environmental stewardship and promoting conservation awareness. An ecological atlas leverages citizen science initiatives, encouraging individuals to contribute observations and data that enrich our understanding of Europe’s ecosystems. By actively involving the public in ecological research, the atlas cultivates a sense of ownership and responsibility towards the environment, fostering a collective effort towards conservation.
  • Environmental Education: The atlas’s significance in environmental education cannot be underestimated. It is a rich resource for students, researchers, and educators, offering detailed, accessible information that enhances understanding of ecological concepts and environmental stewardship. By bringing Europe’s natural world closer to people, it fosters a deeper appreciation and awareness of the importance of preserving our planet’s biodiversity.

Key Platforms and Initiatives in European Ecological Mapping and Atlas Development

Currently, there isn’t a centralized database encompassing all of Europe’s ecological atlases and maps. However, several initiatives and platforms compile ecological data and maps from various sources across Europe. These initiatives aim to facilitate access to spatial information, promote research collaboration, and support evidence-based decision-making for conservation and environmental management.

These platforms and initiatives include:

  1. European Environment Agency (EEA): The EEA’s website provides access to various environmental data and maps. While it doesn’t offer a single ecological atlas, it offers datasets and interactive maps covering biodiversity, land use, air quality, and water resources.
  2. European Nature Information System (EUNIS): EUNIS is a database maintained by the European Environment Agency that provides information on European habitats, species, and sites of conservation importance. It includes distribution maps, habitat classifications, and species descriptions from various national and international organizations.
  3. European Mammal Foundation: The European Mammal Foundation (EMF) is a non-profit organization dedicated to the conservation and study of mammals across Europe. EMF collaborates with researchers, conservationists, policymakers, and the public to address pressing issues related to mammal conservation. Notably, EMF’s significant contribution includes publishing the revered Atlas of European Mammals in 1999, a crucial reference work that has since become indispensable to the field. Recognizing the need for updated insights and data, work on a second edition of the Atlas commenced in 2016, catalyzing the formation of a new organization under EMF to facilitate these efforts. 
  4. Societas Europaea Herpetologica: The Societas Europaea Herpetologica (SEH) is a scientific society dedicated to studying and conservating amphibians and reptiles in Europe. Established to promote research, education, and collaboration among herpetologists across Europe, SEH is a hub for scientists, conservationists, and enthusiasts interested in these fascinating taxa. One of SEH’s notable contributions is the publication of the “Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe.” This comprehensive atlas provides detailed distribution maps, species accounts, and ecological information for amphibians and reptiles across Europe.  
  5. European Biodiversity Observation Network (EU BON): EU BON is a network that aims to improve the collection, integration, and dissemination of biodiversity data across Europe. While it doesn’t offer a centralized ecological atlas, it promotes data sharing and collaboration among biodiversity researchers and stakeholders.
  6. Natura 2000 Network: Natura 2000 is an EU-wide network that provides vital data on protected sites designated under the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive.
  7. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF): While not specific to Europe, GBIF is a global database that provides access to biodiversity data from around the world, including Europe. It aggregates species occurrence records, distribution maps, and other ecological data from various institutions and researchers.

Resources for Different European Ecological Maps

As stated earlier, various ecological maps are encapsulated within an atlas. Below are some ecological maps of Europe, each serving a specific purpose:

Biodiversity Maps

Biodiversity Maps

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A biodiversity map is a spatial representation that depicts the distribution and diversity of plant and animal species within a given area. These maps are created by overlaying data on species occurrences, habitat types, and ecological variables onto geographic information system (GIS) platforms or other mapping software. The key components of biodiversity maps include species occurences, habitat types, and ecological variables. Some samples of a biodiversity map are as follows: 

  • Species Distribution Maps: These maps depict the geographical distribution of various European plant and animal species. They help identify biodiversity hotspots and areas of conservation priority. Some samples of these can be found in 
  • Habitat Maps: Habitat maps classify European habitats, such as forests, wetlands, grasslands, and marine ecosystems. They provide insights into the extent and condition of different habitats.
  • Endemism Maps: Endemism maps highlight regions where species are endemic, meaning they are found nowhere else in the world. These maps aid in identifying unique and irreplaceable biodiversity.

Some sources of European biodiversity maps

Environmental Pressure Maps

Environmental Pressure Maps

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An environmental pressure map is a spatial representation that illustrates the distribution and intensity of various human-induced pressures and stressors on the environment within a specific geographic area. These maps are created by overlaying data on environmental pollutants, land use changes, habitat fragmentation, and other anthropogenic activities onto geographic information system (GIS) platforms or other mapping software. The key components of an environmental pressure map include pollutants and contaminants, land use and cover changes, habitat fragmentation, and climate change impacts. Some samples of an environmental pressure map are as follows: 

  • Land Use/Land Cover Maps: These maps classify the land surface into different categories based on land use and cover, such as urban areas, croplands, and natural vegetation. They reveal patterns of human impact on the landscape.
  • Pollution Maps: Pollution maps depict the spatial distribution of various pollutants, such as air and water pollution, across Europe. They help assess environmental health and identify pollution hotspots.
  • Climate Change Vulnerability Maps: These maps assess ecosystems’ vulnerability to climate change impacts, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea-level rise. They guide adaptation strategies and conservation planning.

Some sources of European environmental pressure maps

Conservation Maps

Conservation Maps

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A conservation map is a spatial representation that identifies areas of ecological importance, biodiversity significance, and conservation priority within a specific geographic area. These maps are created by overlaying data on habitat suitability, species richness, ecosystem services, and other conservation criteria onto geographic information system (GIS) platforms or other mapping software. The key components of a conservation map include habitat suitability, species richness and diversity, ecosystem services, and threats and pressures. Some samples of a conservation map are as follows: 

  • Protected Area Maps: These maps delineate the boundaries of protected areas, such as national parks, nature reserves, and Natura 2000 sites. They provide a spatial overview of areas designated for biodiversity conservation.
  • Connectivity Maps: Connectivity maps identify ecological corridors and linkages between fragmented habitats, facilitating species movement and genetic exchange. They support habitat restoration and landscape planning efforts.
  • Conservation Priority Maps: These maps prioritize areas for conservation based on ecological significance, species richness, and the presence of threatened or endangered species. They assist in allocating resources for conservation action.

Some sources of  European conservation maps:

Socio-Ecological Maps

A socio-ecological map is a spatial representation that integrates ecological and social data to illustrate the interactions between human societies and the natural environment within a specific geographic area. These maps aim to capture the complex relationships between ecosystems, human activities, and socio-economic factors to support sustainable land management, biodiversity conservation, and human well-being. The key components of a socio-ecological map include ecological features, human activities, and socio-economic factors. Some samples of a socio-ecological map are as follows: c

  • Ecosystem Services Maps: Ecosystem services maps quantify the benefits that ecosystems provide to society, such as clean water, pollination, and carbon sequestration. They inform decision-making by highlighting the importance of preserving natural capital.
  • Human-Nature Interaction Maps: These maps analyze the relationship between human activities and ecosystems, illustrating areas of high human impact and areas of ecological sensitivity. They promote sustainable land management practices.
  • Cultural Landscape Maps: Cultural landscape maps depict areas where human activities have shaped the landscape over time, reflecting local communities’ cultural heritage and traditional practices. They contribute to the preservation of cultural diversity and identity.

Some sources of European socio-ecological maps:


A European ecological atlas provides much-needed context and clarity on Europe’s environmental health. It serves as a gateway to understanding where Europe currently stands regarding ecology and conservation and highlights how integral every action is in shaping the continent’s natural landscape. 

As climate change continues to pose significant threats and as biodiversity remains under unprecedented pressure, resources like European ecological atlases and maps become indispensable in informing policies, guiding conservation efforts, and educating the masses on the importance of preserving the planet. 

Frequently Asked Questions

What does a European ecological atlas offer?

A European ecological atlas is a comprehensive resource that provides insights into Europe’s diverse ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation efforts. It offers detailed mapping and analysis of ecological systems, species distributions, environmental pressures, and conservation priorities across the continent.

How can European ecological atlases and maps benefit conservation efforts in Europe?

Atlases and maps serve as valuable tools for conservation planning and management by identifying biodiversity hotspots, habitat corridors, and conservation priority areas. They provide essential data and insights to inform evidence-based decision-making and promote collaboration among scientists, policymakers, and conservation practitioners.

Who can benefit from using a European ecological atlas?

Atlases are designed to cater to a wide range of users, including researchers, policymakers, land managers, educators, and the general public. Researchers can access spatial data and analysis tools for ecological research, while policymakers can utilize the atlas to inform conservation policies and land-use planning decisions.

Are European ecological atlases and maps accessible to the public?

Yes, most European ecological atlases and maps are publicly accessible and serve as educational resources for raising awareness about Europe’s ecological diversity and the importance of biodiversity conservation. They provide interactive visualizations, educational materials, and citizen science initiatives to engage the public in ecological research and conservation efforts.

How can I access European ecological atlases and maps and their information?

Most European ecological atlases and maps are accessible online through dedicated government websites or other affiliated platforms. Users can explore interactive maps, download datasets, access educational resources, and learn more about Europe’s ecosystems and biodiversity conservation efforts.

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